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Our aim is to advance and promote democracy by focusing on areas of research and public policy that are relevant to the work of community groups and policy-makers. We help increase access to, and participation in, the political process -- especially at the state and local levels. We provide valuable information that helps foster equity and quality of services for minorities, immigrants, and other marginalized groups.

What's New 

  • Click here for a PDF of the Howard Samuels Center's Annual Report 2008/2009, which includes descriptions of some of our recent research and profiles of seven Samuels Center alumni, CUNY graduate students who conducted research at the Howard Samuels Center and have gone on to exciting and important careers in academia and the larger non-profit sector.

  • The Staff of the Howard Samuels Center must regretfully announce that the Center's Founding Director, Professor Marilyn Jacobs Gittell, died on February 26, 2010. See Professor Gittell's bio on our Staff page.

A to Z of Indian

While in school we are taught a for apple, b for ball and such stuff, the school of politics of India has entirely different teaching. Here is how it looks like:

A for Aam Aadmi: India is very diverse country with all major religions, various languages, caste living in one country. But chiefly there are only two set of people. Aam and Khaas. aam includes 99% of people of India while khaas includes top business and corporate heads, IAS, IPS and political brass. Of course with their families. So since aam aadmi is majority, Indian politics runs of claims of doing wonders for aam aadmi and ending up doing wonders for khaas!

B for Babri Mashjid:

Age of Authoritarian Democracy

Rule of the people means that the people of Pakistan have the right to rule their own country. According to the democratic idea, the people think for themselves and select officials to carry out their wishes. An election is a public affair. The people, exercising the right to select their officials and to decide upon the policies to be pursued, proceed to their several polling places on Election Day and register their will. The main process of democracy today revolves round a superficial election event: the system of selecting candidates for the top jobs in the country by allowing the electorate to stamp on ballot papers every five years. We can vote to choose our leaders.

Communication Effect

The system of sending information or message from one place to another place is communication.

Understand the meaning of communication and system of communication. Understand about the familiar developments like Mobile, Fax, Computer, E-mail, and Telecommunication.

In ancient times it used to take many days to send a message or information to distant places. But today we can send messages to any part of the world quickly due to the development in the field of communication. The message may be in the form of written piece, sound, picture or movie. Today man uses Telegraph, Radio, Television, Telephone, Fax, Mobile, Videophone, Pager etc., through telegraphy, message can be sent in the form of words. For example: If you want to send a message "Happy Birthday" to your friend. Go to a nearby post office and send the message to his address. This message reaches your friend in few hours. The most common device used for communication is Telephone. We can converse with a person anywhere in the world through a telephone. Depending upon the distance between the communication people, service of the telephone is divided into three categories. The system of sending information or message from one place to another place is known as telecommunication. Through Fax, written material and pictures can be sent. Telephone calls are grouped as local-calls, Subscribers Trunk Dialing, International Subscribes Dialing. Through internet one can access the required information from any part of the world. The modified form of postal service is e-mail.

Communication Skills A Vehicle On The Road

From the moment of birth, babies are learning how to communicate, building on their innate ability to communicate to their mother through crying. Thereafter, throughout life, a person's development and progress relies on communication of one form or another, either communicating to or receiving communication from others. Communication skills are a very important asset to help any person on the road to success.

Being able to communicate is essential to all creatures in nature, and the human species is no different in that respect. Of course, we regard human communication as far more complex and sophisticated than that of other species. There are many avenues and means of communication that we, as a species, use. However, for the purpose of this article we will focus on interpersonal communication skills, as it is those skills that may be critical to success in many fields of endeavour.

Corporate Governance Investing in the Emerging

In the securities market of the Czech Republic corporate governance plays a crucial role in instilling investor confidence and ensuring an efficient market. Post the fall of Communism, the economy was transitioned from state owned to capitalist in a very short time. Since then, the Czech Republic has come a long way to quickly reach standards of other capitalist markets and successfully obtain accession into the European Union. As the market continues its progression, the need for transparency of information and alignment between board members and managers in firms greatens.

From the Czech Republic's voucher privatization program in 1992 to the late 1990's, corporate governance was viewed negatively and/or non-existent for publicly traded Czech companies. A path began with a lack of regulation, continued with a lack of enforcement, and finally turned directions beginning in 1998 with the Securities Commission Act. Even now, as Czech companies attempt to become more competitive on a global scale in the market, the realization amongst firms of the need for structured corporate governance and more transparency in their reporting of information takes hold as a continued effort necessary to report and align enterprise goals with those of other stakeholders.

Daily Politics Blog How to Find

So you are interested in the world of politics but do not know where to find a good daily politics blog. In this article I will provide you with the best method for finding the blogs you want to read. I will not tell you what to read, I will tell you how to find a political blog you want to read -one that suits your specific tastes.

If you know essentially nothing about the world of political blogging you should understand a few things right off the bat.

Firstly, a daily politics blog can come in one of two forms. The first type is the kind most people probably think a political blog looks like. It is the "personal blog". It is made by one individual. The second type is the corporate type. It is like a company as it has several writers or "contributors" who make up the daily blog into what is very similar to an online newspaper.

Democracy at Its Best

'Government of the people, by the people and for the people', it was Lincoln on democracy. The democracy that he defined prevails in his mother country, US. Thanks to the US constitution which plays the balancing act between the three premiere institutions of democracy, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary in the US with a series of powers given to these institutions to control each other, known as 'checks and balances'. Though the President of US is said to be elected directly by the people of US, it is an electoral college that ultimately decides who is to become the President. Election to the upper house, meant for the Senates is held once in two years; similarly members to the House of Representatives are elected by the people periodically. The democracy that prevails in the US is an indirect form of democracy through the elected representatives of the people.

E Governance


World economies have recognized Information Technology as an effective tool in catalyzing the economic activity in efficient governance and in developing human resource. They have made significant investments in it and successfully integrated it with the development process, thereby reaping the benefits to their society. In India also, these developments have impacted the industrial, education, service and Government sectors and their influence on various applications is increasingly being felt of


As the era of digital economy is evolving, the concept of governance has assumed significant importance. The e-Governance has consequently become an accepted methodology involving the use of Information Technology in improving transparency, providing information speedily to all citizens, improving administration efficiency and improving public services such as transportation, power, health, water, security and municipal services.

Election of the President of Pakistan

Opening Remarks

The constitution of 1973 is partly parliamentary and partly presidential in nature. The president of Pakistan runs the business of the state through the Prime Minister. President represent the unity of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Relevant provisions

Article 41,43,44,47.

The office of president of Pakistan under the constitution of 1973

According to the constitution of Pakistan 1973 president is the constitutional head of the state. He is merely constitutional head because responsibility for the administration rests with the Prime Minister.

Qualifications for the election of the office

Five Tips For the Best Queen

So your daughter wants to be the queen of hearts this year for Halloween? There are several important factors to prepare for this endeavor, so please read and listen carefully because in order for your child to be the Queen of Hearts, all steps must be followed.

1. The first thing to recommend is to watch all the Alice in Wonderland movies! There is the cartoon version, there is the 1985 version of the movie which will be very entertaining for all ages, and then of course the New Alice In Wonderland Movie that was made in 2010, which is also a great movie. All three movies portray a different Queen of Hearts, so it is important for your daughter to decide which character she would like to be. Perhaps she will like one more than the other. I think the cartoon Queen is a bit meaner than all the rest, and the 2010 Queen, while mean in her own way, she was very comical at times. She was also the most awkward looking queen of them all. Any queen she chooses to become will be fascinating in their own right.

5 Major Benefits

5 Major Benefits of leasing a carҫҫ by Alka

in Autos / Cars ҫҫ (submitted 2012-04-12)

Buying a new vehicle means incurring a huge cost and thus paying many expenses for its maintenance and operation. If you are looking forward to buy a new vehicle, vehicle leasing is a considerable alternative with you. A good way to escape expenses of owning a vehicle and save money is lease a vehicle from a trusted and efficient fleet management company.

A Fleet Management Company is a company that covers the entire operation and administration of all the activities relating to the transportation, on the behalf of or for its clients/customers and it also includes activities for management of the location, tracking, destination point, resources, contents and even fuel charges.

A Basic Guide To Generating

If you are using your jet less frequently now than when you first purchased it, you might be considering ways to reduce your ownership expenses. If you have a good management arrangement, either with the Chief Pilot/Director of Operations of your own flight department or with a well-respected management company, you probably have your expenses already reduced to the lowest costs possible without affecting the safety of your operation. So what else can you do? A sensible option is to use your aircraft to bring in revenue when it sits idle.

There are several ways you can generate revenue with your aircraft. Many aircraft owners will first consider letting their friends use the aircraft in exchange for payment. At first glance this is a quick and easy way to bring in revenue to offset fixed expenses - but be careful. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Internal Revenue Service codes and regulations prohibit providing an aircraft with pilots to a third party for compensation unless you have your own air carrier certificate. Most non-aviation tax and law professionals don't understand the nuances of aviation regulations, so it's best for you to consult with a tax and legal professional that specializes in aviation to keep from inadvertently violating regulations.

Apartment Property Management

Apartment property management is considered the managing of a multi-unit rental property and the residents or tenants that occupy it. These properties can range from small multi-unit buildings to very large complexes housing hundred of residents. Residential property management is a more industry used term and could include the managing of single-family homes as well as apartment complexes.

As you can imagine the managing of these types of properties can become quite complex and time consuming in comparison to managing a single-family house. Many owners of apartment buildings do not have the time, expertise or the desire to manage such on their own. In these cases, it is recommended to hire a qualified property management company that specializes in apartment property management.

Audi Business Leasing

Audi Business Leasing Offers Best Deals!ҫҫ by Antoine Scott

in Travel / Destinations ҫҫ (submitted 2013-01-09)

One massive benefit you could have overlooked is car leasing, if you're a small business owner, or at least are thinking of starting your own benefits. Effectively giving you a massive discount on the market price, business rates on Company car leasing are naturally much lower because VAT is claimed back.

Chances are they are either company cars or leased cars, when you drive down the road and you see plenty of nice swanky Mercedes, Audis or BMW's coming towards you. To throw away on buying a brand new executive car for it to lose value by the day, not many people have the kind of money.

Automated Recoveries Key

"Efficient and effective" has become the mantra of choice for busy commercial real estate owners and managers. Nowhere is this more applicable than in lease administration, especially in current challenging times when survival can depend on successfully collecting money due, and accurately managing revenues and pass-throughs.

The commercial real estate industry forfeits billions of dollars of revenue and valuation each year. Why? Because the lease terms that entitle them to recover operating expenses from tenants are frequently interpreted, calculated, billed and applied incorrectly.

A surprising number of real estate professionals still calculate expense recovery billings manually, without a high degree of automation. Many utilize spreadsheet programs - which generally goes strongly against the drive toward efficiency and effectiveness. According to NAREIT statistics, only 70 to 80 percent of eligible operating expenses are recovered due to errors and associated administrative costs.

Can Property Management

Can Property Management Services Really Make A Difference?ҫҫ by William Douglas

in Finance / Estate Plan Trusts ҫҫ (submitted 2009-05-07)

Property management services offer individuals operational services in commercial real estate, residential real estate, and even industrial based real estate. Many property owners are now electing to implement the use of these services due to the advantages that they offer. If you are one that engages in one or more types of real estate, you may find that these services make your transactions and business run more smoothly. In this guide, I will highlight 7 advantages of using property management services.

Commercial Agents

Leasing commercial real estate is quite a specialised service and should be sold and pitched for by local real estate agents on that basis.

Have all the facts at hand!

As the local agent you can lease all types of property today, although market knowledge and leasing skill always comes into play. The leasing of property can and should be a specialist service in your agency office; it can involve skilled people and marketing tools relevant to the property type.

The leasing team in a large agency can comprise of a leasing manager, tenant advocacy specialist, lease administrator, property manager, and tenant liaison person. In large retail premises to be leased you will add a marketing manager to the leasing team.

Commercial Property Management

Commercial Property Management Tempe: Why Choose a Best Companyҫҫ by Grover Garcia

in Real Estate / Property Management ҫҫ (submitted 2013-01-09)

Commercial house management can turn out to be a complicated job for a person to deal with with out expert assist. Partnering with an agency will help immensely in property improvement, investment also as management. With an expert on board all the legalities of home management is taken care of. Also, the specialists can suggest the most effective practices to adopt in your personal workplace. If you own commercial home you may want to hire a commercial property management Tempe organization. There are numerous causes why you'd wish to turn to the specialists.

Commercial Property


in Real Estate / Commercial Property ҫҫ (submitted 2010-06-16)

"Efficient and effective" has become the mantra of choice for busy commercial real estate owners and managers. Nowhere is this more applicable than in lease administration, especially in current challenging times when survival can depend on successfully collecting money due, and accurately managing revenues and pass-throughs.

The commercial real estate industry forfeits billions of dollars of revenue and valuation each year. Why? Because the lease terms that entitle them to recover operating expenses from tenants are frequently interpreted, calculated, billed and applied incorrectly.

Contract Hire Information

Contract Hire Information - Helpful Pointers On Leasing Your Dream Car At A Nice Cut Price Dealҫҫ by alan martin

in Business ҫҫ (submitted 2012-01-24)

Contract hire usually refers back to the process by way of which interested customers can lease an automobile for a specific period of time from a car rental company. So if you are desirous about renting an automobile to fulfill your travel wants, being outfitted with the precise contract hire data is very important as a way to determine the perfect worth deals accessible within the market.

Listed below is a step-by-step guideline for locating your dream car successfully at a cut price deal through contract hire: