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Our aim is to advance and promote democracy by focusing on areas of research and public policy that are relevant to the work of community groups and policy-makers. We help increase access to, and participation in, the political process -- especially at the state and local levels. We provide valuable information that helps foster equity and quality of services for minorities, immigrants, and other marginalized groups.

What's New 

  • Click here for a PDF of the Howard Samuels Center's Annual Report 2008/2009, which includes descriptions of some of our recent research and profiles of seven Samuels Center alumni, CUNY graduate students who conducted research at the Howard Samuels Center and have gone on to exciting and important careers in academia and the larger non-profit sector.

  • The Staff of the Howard Samuels Center must regretfully announce that the Center's Founding Director, Professor Marilyn Jacobs Gittell, died on February 26, 2010. See Professor Gittell's bio on our Staff page.

A to Z of Indian

While in school we are taught a for apple, b for ball and such stuff, the school of politics of India has entirely different teaching. Here is how it looks like:

A for Aam Aadmi: India is very diverse country with all major religions, various languages, caste living in one country. But chiefly there are only two set of people. Aam and Khaas. aam includes 99% of people of India while khaas includes top business and corporate heads, IAS, IPS and political brass. Of course with their families. So since aam aadmi is majority, Indian politics runs of claims of doing wonders for aam aadmi and ending up doing wonders for khaas!

B for Babri Mashjid:

Age of Authoritarian Democracy

Rule of the people means that the people of Pakistan have the right to rule their own country. According to the democratic idea, the people think for themselves and select officials to carry out their wishes. An election is a public affair. The people, exercising the right to select their officials and to decide upon the policies to be pursued, proceed to their several polling places on Election Day and register their will. The main process of democracy today revolves round a superficial election event: the system of selecting candidates for the top jobs in the country by allowing the electorate to stamp on ballot papers every five years. We can vote to choose our leaders.

Communication Effect

The system of sending information or message from one place to another place is communication.

Understand the meaning of communication and system of communication. Understand about the familiar developments like Mobile, Fax, Computer, E-mail, and Telecommunication.

In ancient times it used to take many days to send a message or information to distant places. But today we can send messages to any part of the world quickly due to the development in the field of communication. The message may be in the form of written piece, sound, picture or movie. Today man uses Telegraph, Radio, Television, Telephone, Fax, Mobile, Videophone, Pager etc., through telegraphy, message can be sent in the form of words. For example: If you want to send a message "Happy Birthday" to your friend. Go to a nearby post office and send the message to his address. This message reaches your friend in few hours. The most common device used for communication is Telephone. We can converse with a person anywhere in the world through a telephone. Depending upon the distance between the communication people, service of the telephone is divided into three categories. The system of sending information or message from one place to another place is known as telecommunication. Through Fax, written material and pictures can be sent. Telephone calls are grouped as local-calls, Subscribers Trunk Dialing, International Subscribes Dialing. Through internet one can access the required information from any part of the world. The modified form of postal service is e-mail.

Communication Skills A Vehicle On The Road

From the moment of birth, babies are learning how to communicate, building on their innate ability to communicate to their mother through crying. Thereafter, throughout life, a person's development and progress relies on communication of one form or another, either communicating to or receiving communication from others. Communication skills are a very important asset to help any person on the road to success.

Being able to communicate is essential to all creatures in nature, and the human species is no different in that respect. Of course, we regard human communication as far more complex and sophisticated than that of other species. There are many avenues and means of communication that we, as a species, use. However, for the purpose of this article we will focus on interpersonal communication skills, as it is those skills that may be critical to success in many fields of endeavour.

Corporate Governance Investing in the Emerging

In the securities market of the Czech Republic corporate governance plays a crucial role in instilling investor confidence and ensuring an efficient market. Post the fall of Communism, the economy was transitioned from state owned to capitalist in a very short time. Since then, the Czech Republic has come a long way to quickly reach standards of other capitalist markets and successfully obtain accession into the European Union. As the market continues its progression, the need for transparency of information and alignment between board members and managers in firms greatens.

From the Czech Republic's voucher privatization program in 1992 to the late 1990's, corporate governance was viewed negatively and/or non-existent for publicly traded Czech companies. A path began with a lack of regulation, continued with a lack of enforcement, and finally turned directions beginning in 1998 with the Securities Commission Act. Even now, as Czech companies attempt to become more competitive on a global scale in the market, the realization amongst firms of the need for structured corporate governance and more transparency in their reporting of information takes hold as a continued effort necessary to report and align enterprise goals with those of other stakeholders.

Daily Politics Blog How to Find

So you are interested in the world of politics but do not know where to find a good daily politics blog. In this article I will provide you with the best method for finding the blogs you want to read. I will not tell you what to read, I will tell you how to find a political blog you want to read -one that suits your specific tastes.

If you know essentially nothing about the world of political blogging you should understand a few things right off the bat.

Firstly, a daily politics blog can come in one of two forms. The first type is the kind most people probably think a political blog looks like. It is the "personal blog". It is made by one individual. The second type is the corporate type. It is like a company as it has several writers or "contributors" who make up the daily blog into what is very similar to an online newspaper.

Democracy at Its Best

'Government of the people, by the people and for the people', it was Lincoln on democracy. The democracy that he defined prevails in his mother country, US. Thanks to the US constitution which plays the balancing act between the three premiere institutions of democracy, the legislature, the executive and the judiciary in the US with a series of powers given to these institutions to control each other, known as 'checks and balances'. Though the President of US is said to be elected directly by the people of US, it is an electoral college that ultimately decides who is to become the President. Election to the upper house, meant for the Senates is held once in two years; similarly members to the House of Representatives are elected by the people periodically. The democracy that prevails in the US is an indirect form of democracy through the elected representatives of the people.

E Governance


World economies have recognized Information Technology as an effective tool in catalyzing the economic activity in efficient governance and in developing human resource. They have made significant investments in it and successfully integrated it with the development process, thereby reaping the benefits to their society. In India also, these developments have impacted the industrial, education, service and Government sectors and their influence on various applications is increasingly being felt of


As the era of digital economy is evolving, the concept of governance has assumed significant importance. The e-Governance has consequently become an accepted methodology involving the use of Information Technology in improving transparency, providing information speedily to all citizens, improving administration efficiency and improving public services such as transportation, power, health, water, security and municipal services.

Election of the President of Pakistan

Opening Remarks

The constitution of 1973 is partly parliamentary and partly presidential in nature. The president of Pakistan runs the business of the state through the Prime Minister. President represent the unity of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Relevant provisions

Article 41,43,44,47.

The office of president of Pakistan under the constitution of 1973

According to the constitution of Pakistan 1973 president is the constitutional head of the state. He is merely constitutional head because responsibility for the administration rests with the Prime Minister.

Qualifications for the election of the office

Five Tips For the Best Queen

So your daughter wants to be the queen of hearts this year for Halloween? There are several important factors to prepare for this endeavor, so please read and listen carefully because in order for your child to be the Queen of Hearts, all steps must be followed.

1. The first thing to recommend is to watch all the Alice in Wonderland movies! There is the cartoon version, there is the 1985 version of the movie which will be very entertaining for all ages, and then of course the New Alice In Wonderland Movie that was made in 2010, which is also a great movie. All three movies portray a different Queen of Hearts, so it is important for your daughter to decide which character she would like to be. Perhaps she will like one more than the other. I think the cartoon Queen is a bit meaner than all the rest, and the 2010 Queen, while mean in her own way, she was very comical at times. She was also the most awkward looking queen of them all. Any queen she chooses to become will be fascinating in their own right.